Thursday, March 5, 2020
The Corporals Combat Boots Essays - Corporal, Combat Boot The Corporals Combat Boots You must know the world before you know yourself. Most would say Corporal Swim was mimicking a broken record player when it came to saying this phrase. Every day, he would dress in the noble U.S. Army uniform, providing guidance with his words to the young soldiers who had left home to protect a nation in a world they knew so little about. Like clockwork, at the same time every day, he would retire back to his cookie cutter house locked securely behind the gates protected by the worlds most elite force, and just moments after entering, he would watch the little girl run wildly around their crowded living room wearing his oversized combat boots stating matter-of-factly, I know I want to be exactly like you someday, Daddy, and right on cue, his philosophical phrase would once again be spoken. I never quite understood what my father meant as I traipsed around and looked up at him in admiration when he spoke those words. Little did I know there would come a day that I would understand th at the true meaning of the phrase was being taught to me from the day I first stepped into the Corporals combat boots. From a very young age, my father taught me the importance of higher education. The mystery behind why my father was so insistent became crystal clear to me at an age that most have nothing to worry about except which action figure or Barbie doll they wanted to play with. The name embroidered into the honorable uniform he wore held a shadowed past that was the direct opposite of the values he stood for every day. The cycle that members of his family so often fell prey to was a looming shadow waiting to clench its next victim tightly in its grasp and never let go. He was one of the unlucky ones. The cycle of poverty and alcoholism took him as its prisoner like it did to so many generations before him. Little did I know that the man I looked up to was handcuffed into the life he was living because he never finished school. The military was the silver lining my father sought out in desperation. Unfortunately for him, he would be forever branded and influenced by the cycle of poverty. Though I was free to seek out my own dreams, the Corporal made me promise him one thing: I was not to make the same mistake he did. The most important lesson I would come to learn from him was that submission to poverty is not disgraceful to any man, but to make no effort to escape the reins of poverty is the most dishonorable action any man can take. I was to be the first member of my family to break the chains of the cycle. How was a young girl with no experience in the world to do such a monumental task? Like a sweet dream in the nighttime that a dreamer never wants to end, I spent my days forming my unspoken dream that always lingered in the background: being in the military. As I started to grow older in childhood, this dream only became more prominent. I would graduate high school and continue my fathers legacy as an enlisted soldier. And just like that, I would hear the phrase again. At that moment, I realized what he was trying to tell me. Until then, the military lifestyle was all I had ever known. The world was so full of opportunity, and to think that I did not even know a tenth of that information both discouraged and pushed me to learn all that I could. Information that most would deem useless, I consider to be absolutely fascinating. I have always been collecting and processing information in an attempt to decode this thing we call the world, and as it turns out, no amount of knowledge possessed by anyone could allow them to truly understand this world. What does matter is that since I first stepped into my fathers combat boots that day as a child, I have possessed an unearthly amount of information because I chose to, not because anyone
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Work family interview - Essay Example She also said that she has a house nanny, who helps her with the care of the children. When I asked her about her work, she said that she loves her work although sometimes it is pretty demanding. She argued that being a teacher sometimes was quite challenging because children give her a hard time (Kerka & Eric, 1991). She teaches children from the ages 6 to 12 years. Sometimes she would take long hours at work while at other times she would leave work early depending on her responsibilities for the day. She explained that on an average dayÃ¢â¬â¢s work would last roughly eight to ten hours, but on a busy day, it would last the whole day and she would often come home late. When she expected to arrive home late she would call her house nanny to pick the children. Her children were studying in a nearby academy; therefore, she often picked them. She said that her husband was always a busy man and travelled a lot and sometimes would take an entire week from work. However, her husband was a responsible man because he always put sometime for his family despite his demanding job. When I interviewed her husband, he said that he was quite a busy man since his career required him to travel a lot. He said that he would wake up as early as 4 am in the morning and sometimes leave the house before anyone was awake. On a normal day, he woke up at 5 am in the morning and take breakfast that his wife had prepared. Sometimes he would wake up earlier than her wife and prepare breakfast for himself (Lee, Duxbury and Higgins, 1994). Most of the time, perhaps the whole week, he would never see his children since he woke up early. However, on weekends he always kept time for his children, his wife and his family. He argued that sometimes he hated his job because it made him miss his family a lot. Sometimes he wished he was the teacher just like his wife so that he would have time for his children. When her wife was not around, the
Monday, February 3, 2020
A middle east entrepreneur - Essay Example She took up the challenge risking all her investment let alone to mention that she was 22 years old at the time. She successfully established one of the fast growing online bookstore business in her region that is now operating internationally in a span of few years. Profile Jinanne Tabra is an Arabic Iraq woman that had an upbringing in Scotland. She was a former pupil of Carlogie Primary School, Carnoustie. When she was five years old, her family went back to Iraq to her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s home town of Baghdad. They wanted to raise her in the Arabic culture and develop her Arabic language (ArabohÃ¢â¬â¢s story 2012, 1). However, for the family safety as the gulf war was eminent they relocated back to Scotland. Like most other Arabic children growing abroad she did not find Arabic enjoyable to learn but it was a struggle and difficult for her. While growing up, she did not have any access to fun Arabic books or cartoons although she wished that she had them. She did not even have any access to Arabic games to play with like other children growing in her native country. The best access she had to Arabic teachings was a community run Arabic school. She attended the community school during weekends something, which she did not find appealing. According to Araboh.com (2012, 1) Tabra says that, for her, it was no fun giving up playing time and enjoying your weekend for studying intensive Arabic. Tabra relocated the gulf, back to her native and homeland country while she was in high school. She was glad to relocate finally back to her home where she did not have to joggle with two cultures, as it was in Scotland. In Scotland, she had to live with two different and conflicting cultures. One was that of being Arabic, and striving to maintain her identity and roots as an Arab, while the other was the acquired culture of Scotland where she was born and bred. When she eventually moved back to her country, she was delighted of the prospect of living in a country with one cu lture. Here, she was at home and not a foreigner anymore. She fitted in seamlessly and adapted quickly to her new environment. Her little Arabic, which she had learnt from the community school, was helpful for her to adjust to her new environment. As she put her Arabic to use every day in her new home, she was grateful to her family and community back in Scotland for their hard work, in ensuring that she had a strong establishment in the Arabic language. She still struggled with her Arabic, and she was embarrassed to read out aloud and ashamed of her handwriting. Tabra is a graduate of the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University of Qatar. She studied business administration. In addition, she recently finished a certification course by The Academy for Arabic Teachers for teaching Arabic as a second and foreign language. Currently she is studying for a Masters level in International Education Policy at Harvard University. Among her achievements, while aged 22 years, th e Arabian CEO Magazine, named Tabra as one of the 30 under 30 Arab leaders in 2009. She was also featured in the Qatar Foundation achievers Campaign in 2011, which earned her appearances in leading broadcasters in the world, such as CNN and Al-Jazeera. She is also the CEO of Araboh.com the Middle EastÃ¢â¬â¢s first e-commerce business, which she set up half way through her final year in campus. Today her start-up boosts a wealth of fun educational
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Reviewing Theories Of Deborah Stone On Policy Making Politics Essay I name my answer to question as Idea and Deborah Stone, I want go through her book and explain why ideas are so important. According to Deborah Stone, ideas will help people to define alliance, strategic considerations also ideas will help people to get the legitimacy and draw policy boundaries. (Deborah, P 34). According to Deborah Stone, ideas will decide who will be affected, how will they be affected and will they be affected legitimately (Stone, P.34). In the first Chapter, Stone starts her analysis at the city-state (the Greek term polis) level. The public policy is considered as an attempt to achieve a certain community goals (Deborah, P 21). However, due to the fact that everyone has his own understanding of ideas, therefore the political community has become a place for internal debates over who will be affected, how will they be affected and will they be affected legitimately(Deborah, P 34) . The policy-making process has thus become a continuous interaction between the conflict and cooperation. In Stones model, individuals may pursue their goals through collective action. The motivation is not only based on self-interests but also based on public concerns. This is because the public interest is be related to the goal of survival (Deborah, P 33). However, when there is a contradiction between self-interest and public interest, the policy process will be more complicated (Deborah, P 33). When the group is motivated under common ideas, the group will get more strength, and there will be a balance between private interests and public interests in the conflict. Stone directly uses the idea as the core concept of this book. In her construction of polis community vs market individual(Deborah P 33) model, ideas have become the focus. Stone tries to use struggle of idea to explain all stages of policy-making process. Policy-making is followed by a continuous constantly struggle to fight for the classification of standards, types of boundaries, and guide people to conduct the ideal typical definition. The struggle of idea can be seen in several policy levels. According to Stones theory, idea defines what people want from the policy; it is the foundation for people to cognize and understands what the policy is. Idea provides a relationship between advocators and advocacy coalitions; Idea provides causal relationship for these people and groups, and ideas will be reflected to their policy objectives through their actions of obtaining support. And these people with the shared idea will persuade decision-makers to meet their preferences. As mentioned above, Stone sees idea as a constantly changing dynamic and resources of construction. And by given different interpretations of ideas, the concept of the ideas will also change. She points out that the politics of policy is to choose the interpretation (Deborah P 75). Stone argues that the authority to interpret idea is the key factor in the policy-making process. Only legitimated idea can be transformed into policy. And using the legiti macy, peoples knowledge or behavior can be changed. And policy change can also be made through this interaction of ideas. Ideas affects how people cognized politics, and the change of politics will also feedback on ideas. To Stone, idea is not static; idea is an ongoing of constructing and reconstructing process of concepts. Now I will try to exam whether Deborah Stones idea theory can fits with other policy process theory. In the punctuated equilibrium theory, Baumgartner and Jones also argue that idea is a potential power in the policy making process. According to their book Agendas and Instability in American Politics, a powerful supporting idea is associated with the institution (Baumgartner and Jones, P 7); In page 16, they also writethe tight connection between institution and idea provides powerful support for prevailing distribution of political advantage. These statements mean that idea will help people understand what is at stake and how will they be affected (Stone, 2002), policy advocators will use institution arrangement to make their idea be legitimate. Also, in order to gain more power those policy actors will manipulate images and ideas. To Baumgartner and Jones, ideas are important because they provide some potential undergirding institutional arrangements; and the struggle of idea is the struggle over legitimate institution arrangements. In the book Agendas, alternatives and public policies, Kingdon also discusses the importance. In order to make useful policy suggestions, participants in the policy process are competing to develop new ideas; and they are trying to provide their ideas in the form of potential solutions to policy makers. According to Kingdon, policy entrepreneurs lie in wait in and around government with their solutions [already] in hand, waiting for problems to float by to which they can attach their solutions, waiting for a development in the political stream they can use to their advantage (Kingdon, P 165). Shared ideas make policy entrepreneurs into alliance; and these alliances are trying to make their ideas become legitimate. Kingdons primal policy soup (Kingdon, P 139-143) model provides us a picture of how decision makers accept idea through coherent narrative process (ideas are flowing in the streams just as molecules flowing in the soup). According to Kingdon, a policy community creates a sh ort list of ideas. If the ideas can go through the selecting process, softening up process and if they can pass the exam by specialists and policy makers, they may finally become policies. The whole process can be viewed as a continuing struggle of ideas. In this case, ideas are not only competing with other ideas, they are also struggling to survive in this primal soup. I also think Kingdons policy window model is another improvement to Deborah Stones arguments. People are now struggling to make their idea in front of the policy window at the correct time. This model discovers that the during the policy process, critical time is also important for ideas struggling. However, I think there are also some theories which do not fully support Deborah Stones argument. In the garbage can model, because the nature of unclear, policy is not necessarily to be the consequence of the ideas struggling. In Kingdons Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies, he describes that as garbage can into which various kinds of problems and solutions are dumped by participantsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ removed from the scene (Kingdon, P 85). In some sense, Deborah Stones Struggling of ideas assumption is more based on a goal-oriented policy making process, in order to make it work, there should be a clear policy goal from all participants; while the classical garbage can model is more like a method-oriented policy making process, it doesnt require a clear goal or solution at the beginning. In the garbage can model, people are not fighting with each other over ideas in the final solution selecting stage, however it is still correct to say that each solution in the garbage can is a result of deliberative idea thinking. I think there is a slight difference between Deborah Stones theory and the garbage can model. Another policy theory which doesnt fully consistent with Deborah Stones theory is the incrementalism theory. According to Lindblom, the incremental policy process is more relied on former existing policies. According to this model, the policy environment generally remains stable. Because the incremental nature of the policy, the new policy will inherent the policy environment from previous policy, if the former policy has resolved the struggling of idea, then there will be less struggling of ideas in the new policies. Since the policy environment is stable, it will be unlikely for us to speculate a violently struggle over ideas. The last policy process theory I want discuss in the context of struggling over idea is the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) theory. The central idea of this theory is that people or groups with the same beliefs (core/policy/secondary) will form a coalition. I think Sabatiers concept of belief is similar to Deborah Stones concept of idea. Especially, I think the concept of policy belief is playing the role of idea in the policy process. I think his core belief is rooted even deeper than idea. The core belief will sometimes become unnoticeable. And using the ACF model, we can find out that the policy process is a competition among different policy beliefs, and I think this observation is close to Deborahs struggle over ideas the essence of policy making.'. But it does not mean that the change in the secondary belief level is also a result of struggling, according to Sabatiers theory, such change is more like the result of an incremental learning process. In conclusion, I think Deborah Stones argument is useful for us to understand some policy process. However, by using different theories we should also notice whether policy processes are struggle over ideas should be analyzed in situations. The Punctuated-Equilibrium model, ACF model and Multiple Stream model indicate that Deborahs argument is valid. In the P-E model, the change of existing idea or appearance of new idea will bring turbulence to the policy process; in the ACF model, the learning process can change beliefs at different level, and these changes will bring feedbacks to the policy process; in the M-S model, policy entrepreneurs will using the opportunity to propose their ideas, and when critical time is come, the coupled stream will become policy. Incremental Model suggests that policy process is not necessarily linked to struggling when the time span of the policy is very short. There could be no struggle when the whole policy process is already fixed. However, I think the origin/first policy in the incremental model is a result of idea struggling. The Garbage Can model suggests that the choosing process within the policy process may appear as a random process, it is not necessarily to be the consequence of the idea struggling.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Establishment of Operational Road Safety Engineering Units in the Road Authorities (Pads) of 2 Southern Ã¢â¬â States of IndiaÃ¢â¬ Slash Chancre Triad, International Road Safety Specialist It is recognized that the in order to improve road safety it is vital for institutional strengthening, capacity building and reform to urgently take place in the road sector.The Tasks of Technical Assistance Services under two assignments as already addressed in Kraal-India (the World-Bank financed EST. I Project for PAD) ND are currently being addressed in Karakas-India (DAB financed PRAM Project for PAD) are: Road safety tools and techniques vital for roads to be safe and sustainable; Institutional strengthening and reform by providing adequate on and off training; and introducing well-proven and appropriate proactive and reactive engineering approaches / measures and educational aspects to improve road safety.The author will briefly address regarding various activities performed and topics addressed. Such as Safe Road Management System, 5 Pillars, Crash Data Collection, Database, Analysis and Reports for dissemination; Road Safety Engineering; Economics; Low Cost Counter Ã¢â¬â Measures and Program; Vulnerable Road Users; History of Road Safety Audit with Stages, Checklists and Report; Road Safety Review and Inspection; Operations Processes, Procedures, Manuals and Guidelines; Strategies and Policies; Road Safety Co-ordination and Action Plan; International Practices; Road Safety Engineering related Awareness Campaigns; InstitutionalStrengthening and Capacity Building: Organizational structure, Training Need Assessment, Job-descriptions; On and Off Ã¢â¬â the Job-Training and Standards; Monitoring and Evaluations; Innovations and developments In Traffic Control Devices (signs and marking materials); RAP; Procurement of road safety tools (such as book, code, software and equipment); Crash Barriers; School Zone Treatments; Case studies. Also discussions on th e most up-to-date concepts, principles and practices for Institutional reform In the road safety.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Impact of Interpersonal Skills and Capabilities of Leadership on Knowledge Based Organizations Essay
Abstract: The role of leadership in the success of any organization is very much important. Although in Pakistan very little importance is given to this aspect of organizations inspite of this its importance cannot be denied. In other words, Leadership is the backbone of any knowledge centric organization. This research article shed light on the importance of effective leadership skills and practices which can lead any organization to its golden era. The main focus of the study is the changing nature of leadership with the evolution in the meaning of knowledge based organizations. The study is descriptive in nature and relies on secondary as well as questionnaire based survey. INTRODUCTION Knowledge based organizations are usually considered to be those whose products or services are knowledge -intensive. Knowledge based organizations (also referred as knowledge-enabled or knowledge- intensive organization) are usually described in terms of the knowledge intensity of their product or service. The greater the degree to which knowledge forms the core of the product or service, the more knowledge- based the organization. However, using products or services as a mean for categorizing the knowledge Ã¢â¬â based organization is inadequate. Products or services reflect only the tangible part of the organization. The primary resource that enables an organization to produce is hidden within the Ã¢â¬Å"invisible asset Ã¢â¬â intellectual capitalÃ¢â¬ . (Itami, 1987). Knowledge- based organizations (KBOs) lives and breathes knowledge. From dayÃ¢â¬âto-day operations to long-term strategy, creating and applying knowledge is always in the forefront. Prior researches have explored which factors areÃ essential for managing knowledge effectively. Most studies of them have examined the relationship of knowledge management capabilities, processes and performance. Some researchers have focused on the relationship between capabilities and processes (Hansen, 1999; Szulanski, 1996; Zander & Kogut, 1995). Other studies have focused on the relationship between capabilities and organizational performance (Becerra- Fernandez & Sabherwal, 2001; Gold, Malhotra & Segars, 2001; Simonin, 1997). A key to understanding the success and failure of knowledge management within the organization is the identification and assessment of various factors that are necessary for the knowledge management performance measurement with a balanced view (Arora, 2002; Gooijer, 2000). In this study, we examine the relationship among the interpersonal skills and capabilities towards the knowledge-based organizations. To serve this purpose we figure out the core constructs of interpersonal skills and capabilities. Knowledge based organization base their competitiveness on knowledge .Interpersonal skills and capabilities can be critical for the knowledge based organization. Skills are linked with personal knowledge management in knowledge focused organization. Skills can be either basic or cross functional. In basic skills we develop capabilities that assist in the learning of knowledge on the other hand cross functional skills are the ability to carry out the tasks the can help the organization to boost up. Interpersonal skills involve not only how we communicate with others. Aside our confidence and capability to listen and understand, problem solving decision making and personal stress management all these are related to the interpersonal skills and capabilities. Interpersonal skills and capabilities allow dealing effectively with persons of different temperaments, backgrounds and educational qualification in the organization. Knowledge leadership has a capability to built good relation with subordinates and dealing with them. An organization is successful when it posses good team capabilities and interpersonal skills. People create and share knowledge therefore, managing people who are willingÃ to create and share knowledge is important. Knowledge and competence can be acquired by hiring new people with desirable skills. In particular, T-shape skills embodied in employees are most often associated with core capability. T-shaped skills may enable individual specialists to have synergistic conversations with one another (Madhaven & Grover, 1980). Although a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value is generated by intangible assets like knowledge or brands. Performance measurement is one of the most important management activities. Performance measurement becomes the basis of strategy establishment and achievement in the future because it can definitely bring a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and strategic target to all organization members. 3 Objectives of Study Ã¢Å¾ ¢ The objective of our study is to examine the relationship among the interpersonal skills, capabilities and performance of knowledge-based organizations. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ To develop the results that the primary resources that enables the organization to perform extraordinary lies within Ã¢â¬Å"intangible assets (intellectual capital)Ã¢â¬ . 4 Significance of Study Now intangible assets such as knowledge rather than tangible financial assets are a measure of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value. Knowledge is the one of the important resource that increases the value of organizations and gives them an edge over competitors. Therefore various attempts to measure organizational performance in knowledge management have been conducted accordingly. 5 Problem Statement Interpersonal skills and capabilities of leadership have a strong impact on the performance of knowledge based organizations. 6 Rational of Study With the shift of industrial economy to knowledge economy there is a need to recognize the value of preserving and sharing knowledge among the organizational communities. This includes the development of strategic knowledge focus, knowledge leadership factors which promote knowledge culture and its impacts on knowledge workers and outcomes of the organization. LITERATURE REVIEW Organizational theorists have defined knowledge based organizations (KBO) in various ways. Knowledge based organizations (Perez- Bustamante, 1999) are organizations applying a knowledge based approach to the organization. This approach perceives organizations as a means for the development, integration, preservation, sharing and application of knowledge. (Wu, Ong & Hsu, 2008) add that knowledge based organizations allocate resources to intangible assets in the rapidly changing and highly competitive business environment in order to gain competitive advantage. Gold, Malhotra, & Segars (2001) examined an empirically effective knowledge management model from the perspective of organizational capabilities. Sveiby (1997) developed an intangible asset monitor (IAM) to measure the performance of intangible assets such as human capital, structural capital, and market capital. Based on the analysis of secondary data (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Choo, 1998; Trunecek, 2003; Bartak, 2006; Calabrese , 2006; Bures, 2007; Medzihorsky & Medzihorska, 2007; Sladecek, 2007) by mean of the method of comparison, the following general characteristics of knowledge based organization were identified. |Knowledge Based Organizations | |Creates, integrates, preserves, shares and applies knowledge; | |Is efficient, innovative, flexible and proactive; | |Is customer focused; | |Uses ITs; | |Has a strong and open corporate culture; | |Implements knowledge processes; | |Exploits knowledge resources; | |Manage risks; | |Implements project management; | |Places emphasis on education and organizational learning; | |Disposes of knowledge employees; | |Is process- oriented | |Supports team work; | |Encourages participation in management | (Martina, Hana & Jiri, 2012) 1 Capability (Competency- Based Approach) Ã¢â¬Å"CompetencyÃ¢â¬ is a commonly used term for people asserting of their working potential in real activities. The first characterizes competencies as a power and a scope of authority associated with a certain person or body. The second meaning of competencies refers to the capacity, i.e. abilities to perform a certain activity, to have certain general and specific characteristics and skills, to be qualified in the given area. Generally it can be said that it is a set of specific knowledge, abilities, skills, traits, motives, attitudes and values essential for the personal development and successful participation of each person in the organization. This refers to the performance aspect of a competency determined by the level of inputs (knowledge, abilities, skills, traits, motives, attitudes and values) andÃ measured by the analysis of output (real behavior and results). According to its development, it is possible to divide competencies into three main development phrases. The first phrase consists of individual competencies (White, 1959; McClelland, 1973; Boyatziz, 1982; Schroder, 1989; Woodruffe, 1992; Spencer & Spencer, 1993; Carroll & McCrackin, 1997). The second phase is based on the possibility of managing competencies in an organization by mean of competency models (Mensfield, 1996; mcLagan, 1997; Lucia & Lepsinger, 1999; Rothwell & Lindholm, 1999). The third phase is the identification of core competencies, a sum of organization key organizational competencies that may be exploited to gain competitive advantage (Prahalad & Hamel, 1990; Ulrich & Lake, 1991; Gallon, Stillman, & Coates, 1995; Coyne, Hall, & Clifford, 19 97; Rothwell & Lindholm, 1999; Delamare & Wintertone, 2005). 2 Interpersonal Skills Studies say 90 percent of executive failures are attributable to interpersonal competencies, factors such as leading teams, developing a positive work environment, retaining staff, inspiring trust, and coping with change. If you lack the skills to motivate your frontline employees to accept and optimally use new information technologies, your organization could be missing revenue opportunities. This category grows out of what previous research has referred to as interpersonal skills involve social perceptiveness (Graham, 1983; Mintzberg, 1973; Yukl, 1989) to allow for an awareness of otherÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions and understanding of why they react the way they do. The interpersonal skill requirement also includes the skills required for coordination of actions of oneself and others (Gillen & Carroll, 1985; Mumford, Marks, Connelly, Zaccaro, & Reiter-Palmon, 2000) and negotiations skills to reconcile differences among employee perspective and establish mutually satisfying relationships (C opeman, 1971; Mahoney, Jerdee, & Carroll, 1963; Mahoney et al., 1965; Mintzberg, 1973), and persuasion skills to influence others to more effectively accomplish organizational objectives (Katz, 1974; mintzberg, 1973; Yukl, 1989). METHODOLOGY 1 Data Collection and Sample Description Samples were restricted to the companies that adopted knowledge management or held similar process innovation campaigns. The sample was designed to include people from different position, departments and industries. Respondents include executive rank managers of various organizations. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire based survey. The questionnaireÃ¢â¬â¢s data is arranged in terms of various variables and five-point Likert scales are used. Respondents are asked to indicate the extent to which they disagree or agree with the given statement by selecting a point on the scales for each question. (Where 1= strongly agree and 5= strongly disagree). 2 Survey Instrument This research uses a survey questionnaire to test the hypothesis. The questionnaire consists of 26 items about leadership skills, practices and the performance of knowledge based organizations. Items about leadership skills consist of cognitive skills (four items), interpersonal skills (three items), and strategic skills (two items). Leadership practices consist of leading by example (two items), coaching (six items), team interaction (three items). Knowledge based organizations performance is assessed using three items including: organizations products (two items), employees performance (two items), and organization reputation in the market (two items). 3 Theoretical Framework The dependent variable is knowledge centric organizations performance, which is the variable of primary interest. We attempt to explain the variance in this dependent variable by the two independent variables of (1) Leadership skills and (2) Leadership practices. By General Colin PowellÃ¢â¬â¢s: Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership is the art of routinely accomplishing more than the science of managementÃ says is possibleÃ¢â¬ . Interpersonal skills are Ã¢â¬Å"Considers and responds appropriately to the needs, feelings and capabilities of different people in different situations, is tactful, compassionate and sensitive, and treats with respectÃ¢â¬ . D.V I.V 5 Hypothesis Ho= Leadership does not affects knowledge based organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Ho: p = 0 HA= Leadership affects knowledge based organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. HA: p >1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION |Variables |Mean |S.D |N |CronbachÃ¢â¬â¢s alpha | |Independent variables | |Cognitive skills |1.64 |0.7795 |100 |.564 | |Interpersonal skills |1.53 |0.6276 |100 |.371 | |Strategic skills |1.60 |0.7695 |100 |.289 | |Leading by example |1.72 |0.828 |100 |.682 | |Coaching |1.62 |0.7848 |100 |.781 | |Team interaction |1.80 |0.904 |100 |.784 | |Dependent variables | |OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance |1.85 |0.8027 |100 |.562 | |OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s offerings |1.96 |0.8795 |100 |.676 | The leadership skills requirement means range from 1.53 to 1.64 and the S.D ranges from .6276 to .7795, showing a good range and variation. The leadership practices means range from 1.62 to 1.80 and the S.D ranges from .7848 to .904, while organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance mean valued at 1.85 and S.D .8027 and organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s offerings mean calculated 1.96 and S.D .8795. The correlation between CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This research proposes and tests a model of leadership skills and practices to better understand the contribution of leadership towards the performance of knowledge centric organizations. The main objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between the leadership skills, practices and KBOÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. The findings show how leadership improves the performance of knowledge centric organizations. A knowledge organization focuses on developing interpersonal, structural and network relationships to achieve its goals and objectives effectively and to further generate new knowledge and capabilities for organizational competitiveness and success. Several aspects of the leadership skills were tested, most of which attained empirical support. The major findings are as follow. First, leadership skills grouped into three- parts complex: cognitive, interpersonal and strategic skills. Second, leadership skills were related to organizationallevels. That is, jobs at higher level in the organization have significantly greater overall leadership skill requirement. These findings have important implications for organizational research and practice. They provide empirical evidence of the usefulness of considering different categories of leadership skills. Practically, this indicates that careful attention should be given to management development systems because as managers proceed from lower, to mid, to top level jobs, the rate at which they acquire strategic skills will need to be faster than that for leadership skills in general. Our results imply that effective leadership skills and practices positively impacts key aspects of KBOÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. We hope that future research will take advantage of the conceptual and practical findings and further test the model in the other organizations and improve management development, placement and hiring system in knowledge centric organizations.